Međunarodni dan djeteta 2020 - donosimo stajalište EFPA-e

Generalna skupština UN-a je 20. studenoga 1959. godine usvojila "Deklaraciju o pravima djeteta", a 1989. godine "Konvenciju o pravima djeteta". Od 20. studenoga 1989. godine u cijelome se svijetu obilježava Međunarodni dan djeteta, koji je potaknula Organizacija Ujedinjenih naroda i njezine specijalizirane ustanove.

Obilježavanjem ovog dana se želi senzibilizirati javno mnijenje i ustanove za potrebu zaštite maloljetnika od zlouporabe, nasilja i raznih oblika diskriminacije. Također se žele potaknuti organizacije koje se bave ljudskim pravima i slobodama na poduzimanje konkretnih koraka u zaštiti i unapređenju dječjih prava jer su ta prava temelj izgradnje naprednog društva. Temelj za svijet mira je sredina gdje djeca postaju prijatelji, gdje uče i rade surađujući i odrastaju sa spoznajom o međuovisnosti svih živih bića. Nažalost, postoje djeca kojoj su uskraćena osnovna životna prava jer se na primjer iskorištavaju kao radna snaga, sudjeluju u ratnim sukobima s oružjem, prisiljavaju na prostituciju i sl.

Na ovaj dan na poseban način treba gledati na prava djece i adolescenata na najsiromašnijim područjima na svijetu.
Osnovna dječja prava su:

Prava preživljavanja - hrana, smještaj, stanovanje, zdravlje, životni standard;
Razvojna prava - razvoj, odgoj i obrazovanje, obitelj, kultura, identitet;
Prava sudjelovanja - donošenje odluka, druženje, izražavanje, pristup informacijama;
Prava zaštite od - zlostavljanja, zanemarivanja, izrabljivanja, mučenja, otmice, prostitucije.

U nastavku donosimo stajalište EFPA-e, u povodu ovogodišnjeg Međunarodnog dana djeteta (izvorni tekst na engleskom jeziku):

World Children’s DayNovember 20, 2020EFPA calls for equal access to education and mental health support for all Europe’s children.

The 2020’s celebration of World Children’s Daycoincides with the unprecedented measures that have been implemented worldwide due to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, affecting children'sand adolescents’rightsto education and (mental) health.

During the pandemic at least 138 countries have closed schools nationwide

The UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization has reported that during the first wave of the pandemic at least 138 countries have closed schools nationwide, and a series of regional or local closures have taken place in other countries (https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse) . The consequences of these long-term closures have been characterized as detrimental especially for children and adolescents living in povertyand other groups of vulnerable children(6.6 % households in Europe according to Eurostat and 14% in USA), leading to further educational, social and (mental) health level inequalities.(1)(2)Other educational challenges connected with low-income households,includinglimited access tointernet,equipmentfor online educationmay lead to digital exclusion and further exacerbating the attainment gap.(3)Furthermore, the disruption of daily routines and usual activities due to containment measures or lockdownshave been associatedwith increased rates of children’s and adolescents’mental healthand well-beingissues such as of depression, anxiety, and psychological stress.(4)(5)(6)(7)Pre-existing mental health problems, the combination of social isolation and distancing, economic recession,and the limited provision of mental health care services in schools has led to exacerbation of these problems(8)Taking into consideration that over 60% of the countries have reported disruptions to mental health services for vulnerable people, including children and adolescents (72%)(9), it is crucial for psychologists and mental health professionals to adopt innovative practices for the delivery of mental health services appropriately implemented.Telemental health, remote psychological services, and teleassessment have been put forward aseffective practices,as long as,precautions are taken regarding their access by the majority of families and children.(10)

Access to education and mental health services has been substantially affected for many children and young people

The full extent of COVID-19’s impact on children’s education and(mental) healthis still unfolding. However, it is now well-documented that access to education and mental health services has been substantially affected for many children and young people, especially the most vulnerable ones. During these unsettling times, there is a paramount need to prioritise access to quality education and co-ordinated psychological and health services for childrenand adolescentsin need in order to ameliorate the long-term effects on children’s educational and psychosocial outcomes. This year, more than ever, psychologists have a pivotalrole to play in responding to new challenges and practices for meeting the needs of children, young people and their families.

Association contact information: 
EFPA –European Federation of Psychologists’ AssociationsRue
Marché aux Herbes 105/39B-1000 BrusselsBelgium
www.efpa.eu
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Uto, 24. 11. 2020 16:18